Some words for red

Cognates (NOT translations!)

The oldest word in each row (and likely source of the others) is in bold. Like everything in etymology, this is all tentative. Most claims (save for Por.) are from etymonline.com; many could be disputed.

Eng. Old Eng. Latin Port. Spanish French Sanskrit PIE
red  read ruber rubro ?, roxo  rojo  rouge  rudhira *reudh-
Eng. Latin Port. French Sanskrit Greek
cochineal coccineus cochonilha cochenille kokkos
carmine  carminium carmim? carmin  kṛmi-jā or just kṛmi
crimson  cremesinus carmesim  ← cremesin cramoisi  kṛmi-jā
vermilion  vermiculus vermelho , vermelhão  vermillon  ← vermail
scarlet  sigillatus escarlate  écarlate  ← escarlate
maroon  marrom  marron 
cerise  (cf. cherry) ceresia cereja? cerise  ← cherise kerasia
burgundy  vinho , borgonha  (cf. bordô ) bourgogne 
(none; cf. garnet, grenade) granatum grená  grenat 

Original etymologies

*Reudh- (PIE):
The color red?
Marron (Fr.):
Sweet chestnut. Probably from pre-Roman local word.
Sigillatus (L.L.):
Kind of cloth decorated with small signs and figures (cf. sigil).
Kokkos (Gr.):
Berry, grain.
Kṛmi (Skt.):
Insect, worm. kṛmi-jā = Insect-produced.
Vermiculus (L.):
Small worm.
Kerasia (Gr.):
Cherry (the fruit).
Bourgogne (Fr.):
Region name (originally “highlanders”).
Granatum (L.):
Either “grain” or “pomegranate” (itself “grain apple”, see below)

Notes

Sources

[…] Otud ide crvena krava,
Crveno telo otelila,
Crveno mleko podojila.

Otud ide crvena krava,
Vode devet crvenih pilicá,
Padoše na crveni bunjak,
Pokupiše crveni crviči.
I odneše preko mora,
Preko mora bez odmora.

(Out of there comes the red cow,
She gave birth to a red calf,
She nursed it with red milk.

Out of there comes the red hen,
She leads nine red chicks,
She fell upon a red dung-heap,
She gathered up red worms,
And she carried it off across the sea,
Across the sea without delay…)

Bajanje South-Slavic healing poetry-spell, as reported by J.M. Foley.